To do this, you will need to employ an edu-darling term, “formative assessment,” which is a fancy way of saying figure out where your kids are, either two inches or two miles away, from the standard, then give them clear feedback on how to take the next step toward it.
The first lesson of formative assessment: it’s not a thing; it’s a state of mind. Formative assessment is not a grade in the gradebook or an activity to pass the time until the test comes around. It is the sum of all knowledge you own about the students. It is the collected and analyzed product of bell ringers, exit slips, writing notebooks, open ended responses, lab reports, quizlets, classroom observations, student interviews, homework, and portfolios. It’s the answer to the question: where do my kids stand in relation to where they need to be?
No one method of formative assessment is better than the next because, like a piece of exercise equipment, the best form of formative assessment is one you actually use. Sometimes administrators force teachers to track student growth goals, but assessing kids just for the purpose of data collection doesn’t move them closer to the goals. It’s analyzing that data and modifying your teaching to move the kids up, back, right or left toward the goal that’s important.
Standards are static; kids are dynamic. Figure out where your shifting, ranging, all-over-the-map kids are in relation to those immovable standards. Think of a ladder as you map out the small steps that leads toward mastery of the standard. The correct edu-term for this is a “learning progression.”
Let’s say you have Standard A, which is a giant standard. You break it down into 10 smaller learning goals, or ten rungs on the ladder, and design ten clear lessons to address those smaller chunks. Each lesson should allow for multiple attempts, lots of feedback, and practice, practice, practice. Better yet, get your kids in on the action, and let them map out the ladder, wrestle with the smaller steps, connect to the ladder through their own interests.
Early in the process, design a formative assessment tool that asks questions about all ten smaller goals. You could use a quick Google form, which provides you with immediate and collated feedback, or you could use a simple thumbs up/ thumbs down method too, as long as you get the data you need. You analyze it and discover 25% of your class has only mastered two of the ten rungs required to climb the ladder while 50% of your class has mastered six of the ten and the last 25% have mastered eight rungs on the ladder.
Of course, it will never be exactly this easy because standards don’t necessarily distribute themselves into ten clean, small goals. Nor is the ladder always straight or OSHA certified. And students’ abilities aren’t divided neatly into three categories (although it’s surprising how often they do.)
However, enlisting these three steps – breaking down the standard in smaller pieces, assessing the kidlets, then analyzing that data- will established a great starting place to meet their needs. By matching an appropriate lesson to the students’ readiness, you have created differentiation. You can also create more student ownership and investment by asking students to
- set goals in relation to their progress and their own interests,
- create their own rubric for meeting proficiency,
- develop their own questions for the final exam based on the standard,
- maintain their own spreadsheet or other visual representation of growth, and
- analyze their own progress.
Give students many, many opportunities to apply the skills and concepts in your class to gain proficiency. Learning is not one and done. Learning is trying, failing, re-adjustment, trying again. Your job is to encourage, evaluate, modify, and assist. (Book recommendation: Read Robyn Jackson’s great book Never Work Harder Than Your Students about motivating kids to own their learning experience in order to create independence and autonomy.)
To assess learning, you don’t have to give a formal quiz or test. It could be as simple as a day-to-day student reflection that you collect at the end of class. Get tech savvy, which will save you time. Use a classroom response system, like a clicker system, that records and prints out numerical data easily. Use online Google forms that collect and display data in linear scales, pie charts, and graphs. Check out Alice Keeler’s website. She is the master of the Google classroom and has written two books and produced numerous videos to help you figure out how to use the Google suite of utilities to gather, analyze, and reflect on your growing, but manageable data of student wants and needs.
Remember, data is not the enemy. Unanalyzed, empty data, whose production is washed in the tears of over-tested youth, is the enemy. Data that builds the ladders for your students to make gains is your absolute BFF.